“Oh, she hides all the time. She’s just shy.”
I have to be honest with you — an adult cat who hides all the time is probably not a happy cat. She’s most likely stressed out and afraid. But here’s the good news: You can help your frightened feline to shed her scaredy cat skin so she can feel safe, secure and live a happy life.
What Fear Looks Like
In addition to hiding, cats display fear in a variety of ways from spraying and marking to destructive scratching to threatening behavior displays to overt aggression to avoidance and even purring. A cat’s fear response will vary based on individual life experiences, age and genetics.
How Fear Sets In
There are many reasons cats develop fear and anxiety.
“Learned experiences, like a bad vet experience, hospitalization or fights with other animals” can cause some adult cats to be shy and fearful, says Dr. Elizabeth Arguelles, DVM, of Just Cats Clinic in Reston, Virginia.
Other causes include:
- Lack of ample early socialization and exposure
- Fear-evoking experiences
- Unfamiliar people, cats, dogs or environments
- Wild animals
- Loud or startling noises OR excessive, ongoing noise
- Changes in the cat’s home environment
- Car rides
- Too many cats in the home
- Cluttered, dirty, stressful home environment
- Target of bullying by other animals
- Stressful or traumatic experiences (abuse, neglect, abandonment)
- Major life changes (rehomed, surrendered to shelter)
- Change in family (new owner, death, divorce, new baby)
- Pain and illness
- Irregular and unpredictable feeding
- Irregular and unpredictable cleaning of litter box
- Lack of affection
- Unpredictable or unfamiliar handling
- Lack of mental stimulation
- Lack of choices or lack of control over a situation
If we know what is causing the cat to be stressed, we can help prevent it and stop fear from setting in.
“It’s important to understand where the fear is coming from, and what in particular is causing it,” Arguelles says.
She also suggests cat owners talk to their veterinarian about stress reducing options.
Fear Can Cause Serious Problems
Many unwanted behaviors stem from a feeling of fear, or lack of safety or security. Stress is a significant trigger for most common cat behavior problems.
Cats in a constant state of fear or stress are more susceptible to diseases, and their immune systems are not as effective. Chronic stress and fear can turn into health issues if left untreated.
Tools You Can Use
Fear is sticky like gum; it’s easy to attach, but can be hard to remove unless you have the right tools. Try the following techniques to help your cat feel more safe and secure.
1. Allow your cat to choose to participate.
Cats feel more secure and relaxed when they are given choices. A cat who feels secure feels less afraid or stressed. Here is a technique you can use to help you cat feel more comfortable by allowing her to make a choice about whether or not she wants to participate.
In a cat’s world, scent communication plays a big role in how cats recognize one another. When cats greet one another, they will sniff nose-to-nose, then either walk away or do more sniffing. An extended index finger can act as a faux cat nose.
Here’s how you can do it (and teach your house guests):
- Sit few feet away from your cat.
- Calmly extend your index finger, at the same height as her nose.
- Wait for your cat to investigate.
If your cat wants to investigate you, she will walk toward your finger and rub her nose and cheeks along your finger. If she rubs her nose or cheeks along your finger and walks away, she’s done for now, but don’t be discouraged; you’ve made progress! If she moves closer or sits and her body language is relaxed, she is comfortable in your presence.
This technique works well with shy and fearful cats because we are not advancing toward the scared cat.
2. Distract your cat with something she enjoys doing.
When your cat is doing a behavior that’s fun, or one she feels good about, the fear is going to take a back seat. If you can encourage your cat to do any of these behaviors when she is experiencing fear, you are going to help your cat tremendously:
- Perform a command (jump, target, sit, come, etc.)
- Groom (calmly)
Play is a powerful tool. Play encourages cats to have fun and engage in their natural predatory behavior. When you encourage your cat to play, you are creating an environment in which your cat feels safe and in control. When playing together, your cat is interacting with someone they feel good about. This helps your cat to reduce her fears about people as well.
Food is another powerful tool. It is a primary motivating force for all animals. Does your cat like food or treats? Congrats! You have another tool to use! When food is presented to a fearful cat in the presence of a stimulus (Scary Thing) that causes fear or anxiety, the smell and taste of the food bypasses all other parts of the cat’s brain and goes directly to the brain’s emotional center, the amygdala. Instead of experiencing a fear response, the cat’s brain begins to be overcome with feel-good feelings from food. It also allows a cat to focus on the feel-good sensation and less on the negative feeling.
3. Help change her feelings about the Scary Thing.
Many behavior problems are rooted in how the cat feels about something, so the most effective treatment addresses the feeling that’s causing unwanted behaviors. Fear is an emotion that can be changed, so you help your cat overcome her fear of something when you change the way she feels about that something that frightens her.
What does your cat consider a Scary Thing? Now think of something delicious that she cannot resist. You want to very gradually pair them together. Once your cat begins to associate Good Things with the Scary Thing that previously evoked fear you will change your cat’s underlying emotional response (fear). Unwanted behaviors are replaced by better behaviors when your cat is in the presence of the Scary Thing.
Be Sure To Listen
We actively listen to our cats when we learn to read their complex and subtle body language, recognize their moods, and understand their individual needs. If you understand what your cat is trying to tell you, you can appreciate what they are feeling about a particular situation.
We can’t begin to really understand our adult cats until we can see their life from their perspective. This is the key to helping them cope and overcome their fears. Learn to listen to your cat. Give her choices. Reduce the environmental factors that trigger her stress response. Increase environmental enrichment. This is how we help our scaredy cats.